# 9 Lines with all of Physics

From: https://www.motionmountain.net/9lines.html

- 1.Nature dislikes squander.
- 1.
`dW = 0`

- 2.Action
`W = Integration L dt`

is minimized in every motion. Locally`L = E(kinetic) - E(potential)`

, and the lines below determine it.

- 2.Nature dislikes hurrying.
- 1.
`v <= c`

- 2.Energy speed
`v`

is limited by the speed of light`c`

- 3.Nature dislikes excessive force.
- 1.
`F <= c^4 / 4G`

- 2.Force
`F`

is limited by`c`

and the gravitations constant`G`

- 4.Nature dislikes sloth.
- 1.
`W >= h`

- 2.Action
`W`

is never smaller than the quantum of action`h`

- 5.Nature dislikes perfect order.
- 1.
`S >= k`

- 2.Entropy
`S`

is never smaller than the Boltzmann constant`k`

- 6.Electric charges are conserved and attract or repel.
- 1.
`U(1)`

- 2.Is the symmetry of electromagnetism.

- 7.Nuclei show two other types of charges and forces.
- 1.
`SU(3)`

and broken`SU(2)`

- 2.Are the symmetries of two nuclear interactions.

- 8.Nature determines the elementary particles.
- 1.About 18 particles
- 2.Bosons, quarks and leptons - with their charges and properties make up everything.

- 9.Nature determines the fundamental constants.
- 1.About 25 numbers
- 2.Dimensions, coupling constants, particle mass ratios, mixings - determine all observations, colors and beauty.

No known observations and no known measurements contradict these 9 lines.

- Not even in the last significant digit.
- Find a single contradicting observation or experiment and become famous.

These 9 lines determine all equations of physics:

- Line 1, 2, and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field equations
- Lines 1, 2 and 4 to 9, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory, the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics, with massive neutrinos and PMNS mixing, and thermodynamics.

These 9 lines resulted from the work of millions on scientists and engineers during 400 years

- Galileo started around the year 1600; line 1 resulted after over 150 years. Line 5 arose from 1824 to 1929, line 6 rose around 1860, line 2 and 4 around 1900, line 3 from 1915 to 2002, and lines 7, 8 and 9 from 1936 to 1973

These 9 lines contain all natural sciences

- They contains physics, chemistry, material science, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy and engineering

These 9 lines contain all present knowledge about nature, including all textbook physics and all observations ever made.

**Want more?**

Three questions are open in fundamental physics:

- 1.Are all observations in nature described by the 9 lines - or are they phenomena beyond present textbook physics?
- 1.To which line do dark matter and dark energy belong exactly?

- 2.Are there any undiscovered lines with new physics - or will
`F <= c^4/4G`

remain the last law of physics?- 1.Explored mainly in the years from 1973 to 2002, the force limit is the law of physics discovered last.
- 2.The limit value
`c^4/4G ~= 3.0 * 10^43 N`

for the local force has passed all checks. - 3.It allows deducing Einstein's field equations and is the shortest known summary of general relativity.

- 3.What is the common explanation for the 9 lines - or is there none?
- 1.In particular, what determines line 1, the Lagrangian description of all motion?
- 2.What determines the limits of lines 2 to 5?
- 3.What determines lines 6 to 9, i.e. the force spectrum, the particle spectrum and the fundamental constants?
- 4.The lines 6 to 9 contain the only known physics effects unexplained by and thus beyond the standard model.