# 9 Lines with all of Physics

From: https://www.motionmountain.net/9lines.html
1. 1.
Nature dislikes squander.
1. 1.
`dW = 0`
2. 2.
Action `W = Integration L dt` is minimized in every motion. Locally `L = E(kinetic) - E(potential)`, and the lines below determine it.
2. 2.
Nature dislikes hurrying.
1. 1.
`v <= c`
2. 2.
Energy speed `v` is limited by the speed of light `c`
3. 3.
Nature dislikes excessive force.
1. 1.
`F <= c^4 / 4G`
2. 2.
Force `F` is limited by `c` and the gravitations constant `G`
4. 4.
Nature dislikes sloth.
1. 1.
`W >= h`
2. 2.
Action `W` is never smaller than the quantum of action `h`
5. 5.
Nature dislikes perfect order.
1. 1.
`S >= k`
2. 2.
Entropy `S` is never smaller than the Boltzmann constant `k`
6. 6.
Electric charges are conserved and attract or repel.
1. 1.
`U(1)`
2. 2.
Is the symmetry of electromagnetism.
7. 7.
Nuclei show two other types of charges and forces.
1. 1.
`SU(3)` and broken `SU(2)`
2. 2.
Are the symmetries of two nuclear interactions.
8. 8.
Nature determines the elementary particles.
1. 1.
2. 2.
Bosons, quarks and leptons - with their charges and properties make up everything.
9. 9.
Nature determines the fundamental constants.
1. 1.
2. 2.
Dimensions, coupling constants, particle mass ratios, mixings - determine all observations, colors and beauty.
No known observations and no known measurements contradict these 9 lines.
• Not even in the last significant digit.
• Find a single contradicting observation or experiment and become famous.
These 9 lines determine all equations of physics:
• Line 1, 2, and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field equations
• Lines 1, 2 and 4 to 9, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory, the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics, with massive neutrinos and PMNS mixing, and thermodynamics.
These 9 lines resulted from the work of millions on scientists and engineers during 400 years
• Galileo started around the year 1600; line 1 resulted after over 150 years. Line 5 arose from 1824 to 1929, line 6 rose around 1860, line 2 and 4 around 1900, line 3 from 1915 to 2002, and lines 7, 8 and 9 from 1936 to 1973
These 9 lines contain all natural sciences
• They contains physics, chemistry, material science, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy and engineering
These 9 lines contain all present knowledge about nature, including all textbook physics and all observations ever made.
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Three questions are open in fundamental physics:
1. 1.
Are all observations in nature described by the 9 lines - or are they phenomena beyond present textbook physics?
1. 1.
To which line do dark matter and dark energy belong exactly?
2. 2.
Are there any undiscovered lines with new physics - or will `F <= c^4/4G` remain the last law of physics?
1. 1.
Explored mainly in the years from 1973 to 2002, the force limit is the law of physics discovered last.
2. 2.
The limit value `c^4/4G ~= 3.0 * 10^43 N` for the local force has passed all checks.
3. 3.
It allows deducing Einstein's field equations and is the shortest known summary of general relativity.
3. 3.
What is the common explanation for the 9 lines - or is there none?
1. 1.
In particular, what determines line 1, the Lagrangian description of all motion?
2. 2.
What determines the limits of lines 2 to 5?
3. 3.
What determines lines 6 to 9, i.e. the force spectrum, the particle spectrum and the fundamental constants?
4. 4.
The lines 6 to 9 contain the only known physics effects unexplained by and thus beyond the standard model.