# 9 Lines with all of Physics

From: https://www.motionmountain.net/9lines.html

Nature dislikes squander.

`dW = 0`

Action

`W = Integration L dt`

is minimized in every motion. Locally`L = E(kinetic) - E(potential)`

, and the lines below determine it.

Nature dislikes hurrying.

`v <= c`

Energy speed

`v`

is limited by the speed of light`c`

Nature dislikes excessive force.

`F <= c^4 / 4G`

Force

`F`

is limited by`c`

and the gravitations constant`G`

Nature dislikes sloth.

`W >= h`

Action

`W`

is never smaller than the quantum of action`h`

Nature dislikes perfect order.

`S >= k`

Entropy

`S`

is never smaller than the Boltzmann constant`k`

Electric charges are conserved and attract or repel.

`U(1)`

Is the symmetry of electromagnetism.

Nuclei show two other types of charges and forces.

`SU(3)`

and broken`SU(2)`

Are the symmetries of two nuclear interactions.

Nature determines the elementary particles.

About 18 particles

Bosons, quarks and leptons - with their charges and properties make up everything.

Nature determines the fundamental constants.

About 25 numbers

Dimensions, coupling constants, particle mass ratios, mixings - determine all observations, colors and beauty.

No known observations and no known measurements contradict these 9 lines.

Not even in the last significant digit.

Find a single contradicting observation or experiment and become famous.

These 9 lines determine all equations of physics:

Line 1, 2, and 3, together, uniquely determine special and general relativity, cosmology, the Hilbert Lagrangian and Einstein's field equations

Lines 1, 2 and 4 to 9, together, uniquely determine quantum field theory, the Lagrangian of the standard model of particle physics, with massive neutrinos and PMNS mixing, and thermodynamics.

These 9 lines resulted from the work of millions on scientists and engineers during 400 years

Galileo started around the year 1600; line 1 resulted after over 150 years. Line 5 arose from 1824 to 1929, line 6 rose around 1860, line 2 and 4 around 1900, line 3 from 1915 to 2002, and lines 7, 8 and 9 from 1936 to 1973

These 9 lines contain all natural sciences

They contains physics, chemistry, material science, biology, medicine, geology, astronomy and engineering

These 9 lines contain all present knowledge about nature, including all textbook physics and all observations ever made.

**Want more?**

Three questions are open in fundamental physics:

Are all observations in nature described by the 9 lines - or are they phenomena beyond present textbook physics?

To which line do dark matter and dark energy belong exactly?

Are there any undiscovered lines with new physics - or will

`F <= c^4/4G`

remain the last law of physics?Explored mainly in the years from 1973 to 2002, the force limit is the law of physics discovered last.

The limit value

`c^4/4G ~= 3.0 * 10^43 N`

for the local force has passed all checks.It allows deducing Einstein's field equations and is the shortest known summary of general relativity.

What is the common explanation for the 9 lines - or is there none?

In particular, what determines line 1, the Lagrangian description of all motion?

What determines the limits of lines 2 to 5?

What determines lines 6 to 9, i.e. the force spectrum, the particle spectrum and the fundamental constants?

The lines 6 to 9 contain the only known physics effects unexplained by and thus beyond the standard model.

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